# Latex Beamer Bibliography No Numbers Lock

 To do:Add other packages for creating presentations.Bonus: Add screenshots of the results.Working with columnsNavigation — see hereUsing sections & subsections

LaTeX can be used for creating presentations. There are several packages for the task, including the package.

## The Beamer package

The beamer package is provided with most LaTeX distributions, but is also available from CTAN. If you use MikTeX, all you have to do is to include the beamer package and let LaTeX download all wanted packages automatically. The documentation explains the features in great detail. You can also have a look at the PracTex article Beamer by Example.[1]

The package also loads many useful packages including .

### Introductory example

The beamer package is loaded by calling the class:

The usual header information may then be specified. Note that if you are compiling with XeTeX then you should use

\documentclass[xetex,mathserif,serif]{beamer}

Inside the environment, multiple environments specify the content to be put on each slide. The command specifies the title for each slide (see image):

The usual environments (, , , etc.) may be used.

Inside frames, you can use environments like , , , ... Also, is possible to create the frontpage, if and are set.

Trick: Instead of using , you can also use .

For the actual talk, if you can compile it with then you could use a pdf reader with a fullscreen mode, such as Okular, Evince or Adobe Reader. If you want to navigate in your presentation, you can use the almost invisible links in the bottom right corner without leaving the fullscreen mode.

### Document Structure

#### Title page and information

First, you give information about authors, titles and dates in the preamble.

\title[Crisis]% (optional, only for long titles){The Economics of Financial Crisis}\subtitle{Evidence from India}\author[Author, Anders]% (optional, for multiple authors){F.~Author\inst{1}\and S.~Anders\inst{2}}\institute[Universities Here and There]% (optional){\inst{1}% Institute of Computer Science\\ University Here \and\inst{2}% Institute of Theoretical Philosophy\\ University There }\date[KPT 2004]% (optional){Conference on Presentation Techniques, 2004}\subject{Computer Science}

Then, in the document, you add the title page :

This can be done automatically at the beginning of each section using the following code in the preamble:

Or for subsections:

#### Sections and subsections

As in all other LaTeX files, it is possible to structure the document using

\section[Section]{My section}

,

\subsection[Subsection]{My subsection}

and

\subsubsection[Subsubsection]{My subsubsection}

Those commands have to be put before and between frames. They will modify the Table of contents with the optional argument. The argument in brackets will be written on the slide, depending on the theme used.

#### References (Beamer)

Beamer does not officially support BibTeX. Instead bibliography items will need to be partly set "by hand" (see beameruserguide.pdf 3.12). The following example shows a references slide containing two entries:

\begin{frame}[allowframebreaks] \frametitle<presentation>{Further Reading}\begin{thebibliography}{10}\beamertemplatebookbibitems\bibitem{Autor1990} A.~Autor. \newblock{\em Introduction to Giving Presentations}. \newblock Klein-Verlag, 1990. \beamertemplatearticlebibitems\bibitem{Jemand2000} S.~Jemand. \newblock On this and that. \newblock{\em Journal of This and That}, 2(1):50--100, 2000. \end{thebibliography}\end{frame}

As the reference list grows, the reference slide will divide into two slides and so on, through use of the option. Individual items can be cited after adding an 'optional' label to the relevant stanza. The citation call is simply . Beamer also supports limited customization of the way references are presented (see the manual). Those who wish to use natbib, for example, with Beamer may need to troubleshoot both their document setup and the relevant BibTeX style file.

The different types of referenced work are indicated with a little symbol (e.g. a book, an article, etc.). The Symbol is set with the commands and . It is also possible to use directly, like so

\begin{frame}[allowframebreaks] \frametitle<presentation>{Further Reading}\begin{thebibliography}{10}\setbeamertemplate{bibliography item}[book] \bibitem{Autor1990} A.~Autor. \newblock{\em Introduction to Giving Presentations}. \newblock Klein-Verlag, 1990. \setbeamertemplate{bibliography item}[article] \bibitem{Jemand2000} S.~Jemand. \newblock On this and that. \newblock{\em Journal of This and That}, 2(1):50--100, 2000. \end{thebibliography}\end{frame}

Other possible types of bibliography items, besides and , include e.g. , and . It is also possible to have user defined bibliography items by including a graphic.

If one wants to have full references appear as foot notes, use the . For example, it is possible to use

\documentclass[10pt,handout,english]{beamer}\usepackage[english]{babel}\usepackage[backend=biber,style=numeric-comp,sorting=none]{biblatex}\addbibresource{biblio.bib}\begin{frame}\frametitle{Title} A reference~\footfullcite{ref_bib}, with ref_bib an item of the .bib file. \end{frame}

### Style

#### Themes

The first solution is to use a built-in theme such as Warsaw, Berlin, etc. The second solution is to specify colors, inner themes and outer themes.

##### The Built-in solution

To the preamble you can add the following line:

to use the "Warsaw" theme. has several themes, many of which are named after cities (e.g. Frankfurt, Madrid, Berlin, etc.).

This Theme Matrix contains the various theme and color combinations included with . For more customizing options, have a look to the official documentation included in your distribution of , particularly the part Change the way it looks.

The full list of themes is:

Color themes, typically with animal names, can be specified with

The full list of color themes is:

 defaultalbatrossbeaverbeetlecrane dolphindoveflylilyorchid roseseagullseahorsewhalewolverine
##### The do it yourself solution

First you can specify the outertheme. The outertheme defines the head and the footline of each slide.

\useoutertheme{infolines}

Here is a list of all available outer themes:

• infolines
• miniframes
• sidebar
• smoothbars
• smoothtree
• split
• tree

Then you can add the innertheme:

\useinnertheme{rectangles}

Here is a list of all available inner themes:

• rectangles
• circles
• inmargin
• rounded

You can define the color of every element:

\setbeamercolor{alerted text}{fg=orange}\setbeamercolor{background canvas}{bg=white}\setbeamercolor{block body alerted}{bg=normal text.bg!90!black}\setbeamercolor{block body}{bg=normal text.bg!90!black}\setbeamercolor{block body example}{bg=normal text.bg!90!black}\setbeamercolor{block title alerted}{use={normal text,alerted text},fg=alerted text.fg!75!normal text.fg,bg=normal text.bg!75!black}\setbeamercolor{block title}{bg=blue}\setbeamercolor{block title example}{use={normal text,example text},fg=example text.fg!75!normal text.fg,bg=normal text.bg!75!black}\setbeamercolor{fine separation line}{}\setbeamercolor{frametitle}{fg=brown}\setbeamercolor{item projected}{fg=black}\setbeamercolor{normal text}{bg=black,fg=yellow}\setbeamercolor{palette sidebar primary}{use=normal text,fg=normal text.fg}\setbeamercolor{palette sidebar quaternary}{use=structure,fg=structure.fg}\setbeamercolor{palette sidebar secondary}{use=structure,fg=structure.fg}\setbeamercolor{palette sidebar tertiary}{use=normal text,fg=normal text.fg}\setbeamercolor{section in sidebar}{fg=brown}\setbeamercolor{section in sidebar shaded}{fg=grey}\setbeamercolor{separation line}{}\setbeamercolor{sidebar}{bg=red}\setbeamercolor{sidebar}{parent=palette primary}\setbeamercolor{structure}{bg=black, fg=green}\setbeamercolor{subsection in sidebar}{fg=brown}\setbeamercolor{subsection in sidebar shaded}{fg=grey}\setbeamercolor{title}{fg=brown}\setbeamercolor{titlelike}{fg=brown}

Colors can be defined as usual:

\definecolor{chocolate}{RGB}{33,33,33}

Block styles can also be defined:

You can also suppress the navigation bar:

#### Fonts

You may also change the fonts for particular elements. If you wanted the title of the presentation as rendered by to occur in a serif font instead of the default sanserif, you would use:

\setbeamerfont{title}{family=\rm}

You could take this a step further if you are using OpenType fonts with Xe(La)TeX and specify a serif font with increased size and oldstyle proportional alternate number glyphs:

##### Math Fonts

The default settings for use a different set of math fonts than one would expect from creating a simple math article. One quick fix for this is to use at the beginning of the file the option

\documentclass[mathserif]{beamer}

Others have proposed to use the command

\usefonttheme[onlymath]{serif}

but it is not clear if this works for absolutely every math character.

### Frames Options

The plain option. Sometimes you need to include a large figure or a large table and you don't want to have the bottom and the top off the slides. In that case, use the plain option:

If you want to include lots of text on a slide, use the shrink option.

The allowframebreaks option will auto-create new frames if there is too much content to be displayed on one.

\frame[allowframebreaks]{% ...}

Before using any verbatim environment (like ), you should pass the option to the environment, as verbatim environments need to be typeset differently. Usually, the form is usable (for details see the manual). Note that the option may not be used with commands since it expects to encounter a , which should be alone on a single line.

\begin{frame}[fragile] \frametitle{Source code}\begin{lstlisting}[caption=First C example] int main() { printf("Hello World!"); return 0; }\end{lstlisting}\end{frame}

Internal and external hyperlinks can be used in beamer to assist navigation. Clean looking buttons can also be added.

By default the beamer class adds navigation buttons in the bottom right corner. To remove them one can place

in the preamble.

### Animations

The following is merely an introduction to the possibilities in beamer. Chapter 8 of the beamer manual provides much more detail, on many more features.

Making items appear on a slide is possible by simply using the statement:

\begin{frame}\frametitle{Some background} We start our discussion with some concepts. \pause The first concept we introduce originates with Erd\H os. \end{frame}

Text or figures after will display after one of the following events (which may vary between PDF viewers): pressing space, return or page down on the keyboard, or using the mouse to scroll down or click the next slide button. Pause can be used within etc.

#### Text animations

For text animations, for example in the itemize environment, it is possible to specify appearance and disappearance of text by using where a and b are the numbers of the events the item is to be displayed for (inclusive). For example:

\begin{itemize}\item This one is always shown \item<1-> The first time (i.e. as soon as the slide loads) \item<2-> The second time \item<1-> Also the first time \only<1-1> {This one is shown at the first time, but it will hide soon (on the next event after the slide loads).}\end{itemize}

A simpler approach for revealing one item per click is to use .

\begin{frame}\frametitle{Hidden higher-order concepts?'}\begin{itemize}[<+->] \item The truths of arithmetic which are independent of PA in some sense themselves {contain} essentially {\color{blue}{hidden higher-order}}, or infinitary, concepts'??? \item `Truths in the language of arithmetic which \ldots\item That suggests stronger version of Isaacson's thesis. \end{itemize}\end{frame}

In all these cases, pressing page up, scrolling up, or clicking the previous slide button in the navigation bar will backtrack through the sequence.

### Handout mode

In beamer class, the default mode is presentation which makes the slides. However, you can work in a different mode that is called handout by setting this option when calling the class:

\documentclass[12pt,handout]{beamer}

This mode is useful to see each slide only one time with all its stuff on it, making any environments visible all at once (for instance, printable version). Nevertheless, this makes an issue when working with the command, because its purpose is to have only some text or figures at a time and not all of them together.

If you want to solve this, you can add a statement to specify precisely the behavior when dealing with commands in handout mode. Suppose you have a code like this

\only<1>{\includegraphics{pic1.eps}}\only<2>{\includegraphics{pic2.eps}}

These pictures being completely different, you want them both in the handout, but they cannot be both on the same slide since they are large. The solution is to add the handout statement to have the following:

\only<1| handout:1>{\includegraphics{pic1.eps}}\only<2| handout:2>{\includegraphics{pic2.eps}}

This will ensure the handout will make a slide for each picture.

Now imagine you still have your two pictures with the only statements, but the second one show the first one plus some other graphs and you don't need the first one to appear in the handout. You can thus precise the handout mode not to include some only commands by:

\only<1| handout:0>{\includegraphics{pic1.eps}}\only<2>{\includegraphics{pic2.eps}}

The command can also be used to hide frames, e.g.

\begin{frame}<handout:0>

or even, if you have written a frame that you don't want anymore but maybe you will need it later, you can write

\begin{frame}<0| handout:0>

and this will hide your slide in both modes. (The order matters. Don't put handout:0|beamer:0 or it won't work.)

A last word about the handout mode is about the notes. Actually, the full syntax for a frame is

\begin{frame} ... \end{frame}\note{...}\note{...} ...

and you can write your notes about a frame in the field note (many of them if needed). Using this, you can add an option to the class calling, either

\documentclass[12pt,handout,notes=only]{beamer}

or

\documentclass[12pt,handout,notes=show]{beamer}

The first one is useful when you make a presentation to have only the notes you need, while the second one could be given to those who have followed your presentation or those who missed it, for them to have both the slides with what you said.

Note that the 'handout' option in the \documentclass line suppress all the animations.

Important: the notes=only mode is literally doing only the notes. This means there will be no output file but the DVI. Thus it requires you to have run the compilation in another mode before. If you use separate files for a better distinction between the modes, you may need to copy the .aux file from the handout compilation with the slides (w/o the notes).

### Columns and Blocks

There are two handy environments for structuring a slide: "blocks", which divide the slide (horizontally) into headed sections, and "columns" which divides a slide (vertically) into columns. Blocks and columns can be used inside each other.

#### Columns

Example

\begin{frame}{Example of columns 1}\begin{columns}[c] % the "c" option specifies center vertical alignment\column{.5\textwidth}% column designated by a command Contents of the first column \column{.5\textwidth} Contents split \\ into two lines \end{columns}\end{frame}\begin{frame}{Example of columns 2}\begin{columns}[T] % contents are top vertically aligned\begin{column}[T]{5cm}% each column can also be its own environment Contents of first column \\ split into two lines \end{column}\begin{column}[T]{5cm}% alternative top-align that's better for graphics\includegraphics[height=3cm]{graphic.png}\end{column}\end{columns}\end{frame}

#### Blocks

Enclosing text in the block environment creates a distinct, headed block of text (a blank heading can be used). This allows to visually distinguish parts of a slide easily. There are three basic types of block. Their formatting depends on the theme being used.

Simple

\begin{frame}\begin{block}{This is a Block} This is important information \end{block}\begin{alertblock}{This is an Alert block} This is an important alert \end{alertblock}\begin{exampleblock}{This is an Example block} This is an example \end{exampleblock}\end{frame}

### PDF options

You can specify the default options of your PDF.[2]

\hypersetup{pdfstartview={Fit}}% fits the presentation to the window when first displayed

### Numbering slides

It is possible to number slides using this snippet:

However, this poses two problems for some presentation authors: the title slide is numbered as the first one, and the appendix or so-called "backup" (aka appendix, reserve) slides are included in the total count despite them not being intended to be public until a "hard" question is asked.[3] This is where two features come in:

• Ability to reset the frames counter at any slide. For instance, this may be inserted at the title slide to avoid counting it:

Or alternatively this:

• The first of the above applies to section slides to avoid counting them.
• This stuff works around the problem of counting the backup slides:

## The powerdot package

The powerdot package is an alternative to beamer. It is available from CTAN. The documentation explains the features in great detail.

The powerdot package is loaded by calling the class:

The usual header information may then be specified.

Inside the usual environment, multiple environments specify the content to be put on each slide.

\begin{document}\begin{slide}{This is the first slide}%Content goes here\end{slide}\begin{slide}{This is the second slide}%More content goes here\end{slide}% etc\end{document}

## Simple presentations

The class is very powerful and provides lots of features. For a very simple presentation, a class based on can be used.

\documentclass[paper=160mm:90mm,fontsize=10pt,DIV=16]{scrartcl}\usepackage{lmodern}\pagestyle{empty}\renewcommand{\familydefault}{\sfdefault}\newenvironment{slide}[1]{\clearpage{\LARGE\bfseries#1\par}\vspace{\baselineskip}}{}\usepackage{enumitem}\setlist{noitemsep}\title{XeTaL}\author{Carl Capybara}\begin{document}\maketitle\begin{slide}{slide title} This is just some text \begin{itemize}\item Wombat \item Capybara \item Mara \end{itemize}\end{slide}\begin{slide}{Wombat title} This is just some different text \end{slide}\end{document}

## Bibliography

A typical scientific document contains a number of references, and this leads to the problem of organizing and presentation of the references in the document. The problem can be subdivided into several parts: store of the reference information, later retrieval of this information while preparing the document, and presentation (formatting) of the reference information in the document and in the bibliography according to a particular format.

A widely-used approach to deal with references in LaTeX documents is to employ BibTeX reference management software. In BibTeX reference information is stored in format-independent plain text file(s) (usually with .bib extension), which can be modified with almost any text editor. Such a text file contains BibTeX entries, and each entry, formed by several text lines, has

• unique ID or key, needed to identify and refer to the particular entry, for instance Author2001;
• entry type, which can be article, book, thesis, etc.;
• entry fields (such as year, publisher, journal, etc.), corresponding to the particular type.

Here is an example of the article type entry from the .bib file I used while typesetting thesis:

@article{Khirevich2010,author= {Khirevich, S. and Daneyko, A. and H\"{o}ltzel, A. and Seidel-Morgenstern, A. and Tallarek, U.},doi= {10.1016/j.chroma.2010.05.019},journal= {Journal of Chromatography A},shortjournal= {J. Chromatogr. A},pages= {4713--4722},title= {Statistical analysis of packed beds, the origin of short-range disorder, and its impact on eddy dispersion},volume= {1217},year= {2010}}

The command \bibliography{reference_list} placed before \begin{document} is used to specify a plain text input file (reference_list.bib here) containing information on references.

References can be "cited" during editing the LaTeX document using, for example, \cite{key} command, and later at the document compilation step LaTeX input files must be processed with LaTeX and BibTeX.

The most popular approaches to indicate a reference appearing in the text can be classified as "numeric" and "author–year". The former uses sequential number of a reference in the document

while "author–year" is based on the extended reference information and may appear like this:

Each indication has particular advantages and drawbacks. For example, numeric is more compact (i.e., require less space in a text line), and a group of references can be "compressed" into a range in the case they have sequential numbering (i.e., [1,2,3,5] will be shown as [1–3,5]). On the other hand, author–year indication shows more information on the cited document (typically, first one or two author names, and a year of a publication), but requires more space compared to the numeric one. The space consumed by reference may become important if your document has high density of references (and you care about in-line space "wasted" by references :).

and each number has associated script-sized text at the bottom of the page (where the reference appeared) containing extended information on the cited reference:

## Biblatex

To create citations in my thesis, I employed the biblatex package, which is one of the most notable packages I have used with LaTeX. The package provides a highly customizable interface for the creation and edit of the presentation of bibliographic data in the document. Compared to the plain BibTeX, biblatex enables relatively easy customization of the appearance of bibliographic data. Below I provide customizations I used to modify the default biblatex output. The detailed description of the biblatex commands is available in the package documentation.

The two basic commands to enable biblatex and output citation list are

\usepackage{biblatex}% place in the document preamble\printbibliography% place in the document body where list of citations has to appear

While preparing the thesis I activated biblatex with the following optionscompiling the document using biblatex with the options
below will need and
files (see next
sections, "Biblatex customization" and "Footnote
citation"):

\usepackage[hyperref=true, url=false, isbn=false, backref=true, style=custom-numeric-comp, citereset=chapter, maxcitenames=3, maxbibnames=100, block=none]{biblatex}

Option hyperref=true was specified to transform various citation elements (like citation number, page number where citation appears, hyperlink to the web page where cited document can be found, etc.) into clickable hyperlinks. This option requires hyperref package (see also notes on hyperref).

With options url=false,isbn=false I disabled printing the URLs and ISBNs in the bibliography.

### Back references

Option backref=true enables generation of the back references to the citation, which are usually number(s) of the page where citation appears:

% backref=true
% backref=false

The back reference text preceding the page number ("see p.") can be modified using the following command:

\DefineBibliographyStrings{english}{%backrefpage= {see p.}, % for single page numberbackrefpages= {see pp.}% for multiple page numbers}

Just a note on the back references. When you are reading a .pdf document, encounter a reference, and click on it, .pdf viewer will change view to the record of this reference in the bibliography. Now, if you want to return to the main text and continue reading, you may find it difficult to do using back reference when the reference was cited on several pages (back reference will contain several page numbers and you have to bear in mind the original page number you came to the bibliography), and a good solution here is to use "Alt + ←" instead of the back reference itself. On the other hand, back references are useful to indicate how often and where a particular reference was cited in the document.

### Citation style

Option style=custom-numeric-comp determines the citation style. As seen from its name, the chosen citation style uses numbers (numeric) to indicate citations in text, and consequent numbers are compressed (comp) into a range: [1,2,3,5] is printed as [1–3,5]. Above it was mentioned that I used footnote version of the standard biblatexnumeric-comp style — as a result, each citation has i) its number typeset as superscript, and ii) short and extended reference information located at the bottom of the page ("footnote text") and in the bibliography, respectively:

Option citereset=chapter defines biblatex behavior for the reference footnote text in a typical situation when a citation appears several times in the document: footnote text for the particular citation is printed only once per document chapter (citereset=chapter), where chapter is defined according to the LaTeX sectioning commands. In my thesis a typical chapter includes about 20 pages, and I assumed citereset=chapter to be quite acceptable. However, one of my colleagues was confused by such a rule for printing the footnote text (i.e., he did not get the logic behind the rule until I have explained it). I was thinking about resetting footnote text as "once-per-page" (not "once-per-chapter") but decided to avoid this due to high density of the references in my thesis. If you are interested in such a behavior some useful information can be found here.

### Amount of displayed author names

Options maxcitenames=3 and maxbibnames=100 limit amount of authors of the cited document to be printed in the document body and in the bibliography, respectively. If the number of authors exceeds maxcite(bib)names, the author list is truncated according to biblatex settings, and usually printed as "Author1 et al." In my case I have very short authors lists in the footnote text (document body) to reduce space occupied by footnote citations,

and virtually all authors are displayed in the bibliography:

I note that I have prepared my thesis with biblatex v. 0.9a (19.03.2010), while this on-line document was prepared and tested on biblatex v. 1.6 (29.07.2011). Options maxcitenames and maxbibnames were not available in v. 0.9a, and the described biblatex behavior (with maxcitenames=3 and maxbibnames=100) was obtained using maxnames=3 while loading the biblatex package, and maxnames=100 while printing the bibliography, i.e.

\usepackage[..., maxnames=3]{biblatex}% in the document preamble\printbibliography[..., maxnames=100]% in the document body

The next section continues the discussion of the biblatex customization.

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