Fashion And Textile Museum Review Essay

Fashion & Textile History Gallery
May 30 – November 18, 2017
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Explore the Force of Nature online exhibition and online resource for additional information about topics covered throughout the exhibition.

Leonardo da Vinci once said that “those who are inspired by a model other than Nature, a mistress above all masters, are laboring in vain.” Nature has inspired both art and fashion for hundreds of years. Fashion designers often reference the natural world — its ora and fauna, geology, and physical processes — to create wildly imaginative designs. As Alexander McQueen said, “I have always loved the mechanics of nature, and to a greater or lesser extent my work is always informed by that.”

Alexander McQueen, dress, Plato’s Atlantis collection, Spring 2010, England, museum purchase. 2010.77.1

Alexander McQueen, Irere collection, Spring 2003, England, Museum Purchase. 2016.15.1

Rick Owens, ensemble, Mastodon collection, Fall 2016, USA, Gift of Rick Owens Studio. 2016.92.1


Force of Nature examined the complex relationship between fashion and the natural world. The exhibition revealed how nature has historically influenced fashion, and how fashion can serve as an indicator of society’s relationship with the natural world. In eighteenth century Europe, for example, nature became an object of renewed fascination as a result of overseas exploration. This fascination found expression in garments that featured depictions of exotic plants and animals.

Spanning the eighteenth century to the present, the exhibition was organized into ten sections, each focusing on a facet of fashion’s connection to nature. Garments, textiles, and accessories, exclusively from the collection of The Museum at FIT, illustrated how principles in the natural sciences, such as the dynamics of sexual attraction, have informed fashion design. Elaborately feathered women’s hats, for example, showed how the plumage male birds use for sexual display has been appropriated to emphasize female beauty.

Naturalist Alexander von Humboldt (1769- 1859), often considered the father of ecology, characterized the vast diversity of nature as an interconnected global force. He also believed that imagination was essential to experiencing and understanding nature. Therefore, Force of Nature began with a series of garments that demonstrate this diversity and the creativity it inspires. Included were a mesmerizing “water” dress by Iris van Herpen that appeared to splash away from the body and an ensemble by Rick Owens that was inspired by the mighty, prehistoric mastodon.

Charles James, Tree evening dress and Petal stole, 1955, USA, Museum purchase. P87.31.11

Pierre Hardy, shoes, Summer 2015, France, Gift of Pierre Hardy. 2016.18.1

Alexander McQueen, evening dress, Pantheon as Lecum collection, Fall 2004, England, Museum purchase. 2016.104.1

During the Enlightenment, as naturalists classified newly identified plant species, exotic botanic gardens flourished throughout Europe. These gardens inspired the work of textile designers, who began to depict flowers from around the world. The sexuality of plants and the symbolism of flowers such as roses and orchids have also been explored through dress. An evening gown by Charles James with a petal-like stole bestows upon its wearer a sensual elegance by transforming her into a flower. A pair of shoes by Pierre Hardy challenged traditional representations of flowers by rendering realistic images of lilies in saccharine, artificial colors.

The bold patterns of animal skins have been appropriated by fashion designers for their strong visual impact and erotic appeal. However, these patterns are
often employed in a manner that contradicts their evolved purpose in the natural world. The striking patterns that serve to camouflage animals in the wild are often used in fashion as a way to stand out. The undeniable beauty of birds and the phenomenon of metamorphosis, the most radical form of change in nature, have also fueled the imagination of many fashion designers.

Nature was the subject of intense study during the nineteenth century, with everything from ocean life to microorganisms under examination. This led to the appropriation of natural objects as a form of adornment. Scientist and artist Ernst Haeckel illustrated his discoveries using the microscope in Art Forms in Nature (1899–1904), a book that influenced artists and designers. Nature’s geometric shapes and forms have continued to inspire designers such as Christian Dior and more recently the design trio ThreeASFOUR. 

Yves Saint Laurent Rive Gauche, suit, circa 1972, France, Gift of John Karl. 88.170.1

Mme. Pauline, hat, circa 1955, USA, Gift of Mrs. Otto Grun. 77.146.2


In 1863, Charles Baudelaire drew comparisons between fashion and the natural world, describing changes in fashion to be “as elaborately articulated as they are in the animal kingdom.” In an 1872 essay, Charles Darwin’s son George Darwin directly compared changes in dress to evolution by natural selection. Few principles of modern scientific thought have had as wide an impact as the theory of evolution, and fashion designers, in turn, have addressed evolution in their collections. Alexander McQueen’s spring 2009 collection Natural Dis-Tinction, Un-Natural Selection contemplated the notion of survival of the fittest, in addition to the “deleterious results of industrialization on the natural world.”

Dolce & Gabbana, evening dress, Spring 1998, Italy, Gift of Dolce & Gabbana. 98.45.1

Alexander McQueen, dress, Horn of Plenty collection, Fall 2009, England, museum purchase. 2016.63.1

(L) Saks Fifth Avenue, cocktail dress, Fall 1953, USA, Gift of Sophie Gimbel. 75.69.3. (R) Evening coat, circa 1920, France, Gift of John J. Sasek. 81.88.1

Discoveries relating to celestial bodies, the greater universe, and the physical forces that created them have also led to extraordinary designs. Electric force was conveyed in an ensemble by Arzu Kaprol that featured an image of lightning and conveyed a sense of strength and power.

The natural world has influenced fashion in positive ways, but fashion’s impact on the environment has been largely detrimental. However, this relationship is changing, with many designers engaging in more sustainable practices. This shift indicates a new attitude toward nature, from one of dominion to participation. Science and technology play key roles in transforming this relationship, as evidenced by designer interest in biomimicry (employing design principles that imitate nature’s processes) and biomaterials that are grown using biological organisms. Force of Nature closes with an examination of this emerging dynamic, encouraging a vital discussion about future directions in fashion.

Valentino Couture, coat, 1974, Italy, Gift of Mary Russell. 96.84.1

Jean Paul Gaultier, top and skirt, 1988 and 1987, France, Museum Purchase. P88.76.2 & P87.47.1

Force of Nature was organized by Melissa Marra-Alvarez, associate curator of Education and Public Programs, The Museum at FIT.

Force of Nature was made possible by the support of the Couture Council of the Museum at FIT.

Special thanks to the Force of Nature advisory committee for its ongoing support. Advisory committee members included:

Javier Alvarez, Animal Forensics Assistant, ASPCA (former Avian Collections Manager, Staten Island Zoo)
Daniel Grushkin, Program director of the Biodesign Challenge and co-founder of Genspace
Sarah Hezel, Director, Interpretation & Graphic Design, Wildlife Conservation Society
Suzanne Lee, Chief Creative Officer, Modern Meadow
Eleanor J. Sterling (PhD), Chief Conservation Scientist, Center for Biodiversity & Conservation, AMNH
Alexandra Wright (PhD), Assistant Professor of Ecology at Cal State LA (former Asst Professor of Biology at FIT)

Many thanks to MFIT staff who assisted with this exhibition and related web materials. Thank you also to interns Bethany Gingrich and Nelli Ayvazyan.

It’s fair to say that when you think of print and pattern in the fashion world, Orla Kiely comes to mind as one of the top five names you think of. One of the UK and Ireland’s most successful designers, she’s known for the dazzling way she uses graphic prints on everything from accessories to ready-to-wear. Her runway shows are always a delight whether she’s playing with animal motifs or prints inspired by school notebooks. And now, a brand new Orla Kiely exhibition called: Orla Kiely A Life in Pattern is coming to London’s Fashion & Textile Museum. It will explore how she uses print and pattern to transform the way we feel.

The exhibition will feature over 150 patterns and products, as well as collaborations with photographers, film directors and architects, with a special focus on the role of ornament and colour in our everyday lives.

Orla Kiely, Founder of Orla Kiely said: “It is an honour to announce our first ever exhibition at the Fashion and Textile Museum. Over the past 20 years we have built an archive of fashion, accessories and homeware rooted in our signature style. With the exhibition, we will be bringing it all together under one roof in a celebration of design, print and colour that has become the Orla Kiely brand. It is very exciting and an enormous privilege through which we can show the dynamic power of design while looking positively to the future with a clear vision and global identity established.”

Visitors can expect to see original paper sketches for the trademark ‘Stem’ graphic, created in the 1990s. Plus prototypes for her early signature bags and the evolution of the iconic ‘Pear’ and ‘Flower’ designs. Visitors will also get to see what inspires Orla to create her famous designs, how she works to create the products we see, and why she’s so fascinated with pattern. This exhibition is one for design fans and fashion fans alike.

Celia Joicey, Head of the Fashion and Textile Museum said:  “I am thrilled to announce next summer’s Orla Kiely exhibition, which will offer a privileged insight into the designer’s world and her outstanding facility for the rhythms and repeats of pattern. The Fashion and Textile Museum has a long tradition of working with women designers, and this comprehensive exhibition will show how the development of Orla Kiely’s sensibility for colour, harmony and form has enabled the global reach of her style.”

Exhibition Dates: 25 May – 23 September 2018

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