Protein Synthesis Diagram Assignments

Chapeville, F., et al. On the role of soluble ribonucleic acid in coding for amino acids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences48, 1086–1092 (1962)

Crick, F. On protein synthesis. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology12, 138–163 (1958)

Flinta, C., et al. Sequence determinants of N-terminal protein processing. European Journal of Biochemistry154, 193–196 (1986)

Grunberger, D., et al. Codon recognition by enzymatically mischarged valine transfer ribonucleic acid. Science166, 1635–1637 (1969) doi:10.1126/science.166.3913.1635

Kozak, M. Point mutations close to the AUG initiator codon affect the efficiency of translation of rat preproinsulin in vivo. Nature308, 241–246 (1984) doi:10.1038308241a0 (link to article)

---. Point mutations define a sequence flanking the AUG initiator codon that modulates translation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Cell44, 283–292 (1986)

---. An analysis of 5'-noncoding sequences from 699 vertebrate messenger RNAs. Nucleic Acids Research15, 8125–8148 (1987)

Pierce, B. A. Genetics: A conceptual approach (New York, Freeman, 2000)

Shine, J., & Dalgarno, L. Determinant of cistron specificity in bacterial ribosomes. Nature254, 34–38 (1975) doi:10.1038/254034a0 (link to article)

Protein synthesis

It is a two step process, in which every type of proteins are synthesized, according to requirement in unique DNA nucleotide sequence. It is basically synthesis of proteins in both plants and animals. When body required one protein molecule, then the body should be seek the aid of messenger RNA, transfer RNA, amino acids, and all types of nucleotide and nucleic protein. Steps are: Transcription and Translation.

Transcription: It is the process in which, RNA polymerase bonded with gene promoting region and initiate the process of making a molecule of mRNA until it finds the termination point. Term transcription described, the segment of DNA between end of termination and initiation of tRNA polymerase. It is also divided in these steps:

Initiation: It is located at start codon, and tRNA play important role and it is also two type: tRNAf and tRNAm, both are added by one synthetase. IF1, IF2, IF3 these are the initiation factors. Premature assembly of the ribosomes are prevented by IF1 and IF3, and IF2 bonded with fMet-tRNAf (fully assembled ribosomes) and mRNA of AUG codon.

Elongation: In this step RNA is synthesized on the basis of DNA/RNA base paring, such as DNA(A)-(U)RNA, G-C. And makes mRNA in this form 5’ ATTGCGTAGTGGGATTAT 3’, and bod between them is called Peptidyl Transferase and Peptide bonds.

Termination: In this step, RF is release factor which recognize the stop codons which is RF1-UUU/UAG, and RF2 for UAA/UGA. Basically RF recognizes stop codons, and it is also interacts with peptidyl transferase with addition of water, for growing peptide chains. And then GTP-hydrolysis occurs after EF-G and ribosomes bonding, and result is RF gives release of ribosome called RRF.

Protein Synthesis Regulations: It is done by mRNA which called iron response element. It is of two type: a)Ferritin mRNA: which having an IRE to IRE-binding protein also called IRE-BP. In which IRE-BP binds iron and can't bind with ferritin mRNA, iron is stored in ferritin, and all these processes are called High iron production. And in opposite, means low iron condition, IRE-BP binds with mRNA and block the ferritin production. b)Transferrin-receptor mRNA: Its having an IRE to which an IRE-BP, which binds under low iron helpful in stablization in mRNA, permits translation and receptor production.

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